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Drinks and Cocktails guides and resources

Check out these casablanca hotels images:

MIMO Design Casablanca Hotel 1949
casablanca hotels
Image by Phillip Pessar
Olympus Infinity Zoom 70 camera from the thrift store and Kodak TX 400 film.

Casablanca hotel at sunset
casablanca hotels
Image by Marco Markovich / Boda de Cine Photography


Some cool live news images:

media documenting home demolitions
live news
Image by Michael.Loadenthal
numerous members of the Palestinian media were present at the incursion. some filmed, photographed and observed from this roof, while others worked on the ground.
blog entry about the incursion: "The Siege in Nablus today:"

blog entry: media lies about human shields in Jabal Shamali:…

blog entry: news media pictures of Jabal Shamali casualties:…
Israeli Army Kills 15 year old Demonstrator, Injures 12, and Demolishes Houses
August 26th, 2006

To view a video of the initial violence of the Israeli military and a collective punishment:


Nablus, Palestine–Today, August 26, 2006, in the Jabal Shamali neighborhood of Nablus, soldiers of the Israeli Occupation Force (IOF) launched a 16 and a half hour incursion, wherein they killed one young boy, hospitalized at least twelve with many more injured, and destroyed twenty homes and apartments. The IOF entered the area around 2:00am, with over 26 military vehicles including armoured jeeps, hummers, border police jeeps, a Caterpillar D9 armoured bulldozer and Caterpillar “excavator” wrecking machines.

Upon entering the area, the army went to the Labbada house, a three-story building, built in 1927, and home to over seventeen families, including eights flats housing members of the Labbada family. Immediately after entering the area, the soldiers used loudspeakers to order the residents of the building to leave within one minute. At this time, seventeen families exited the building, and were detained on the street, from 2:00-4:00am, while IOF soldiers fired live ammunition over their heads.

Upon seeing the bulldozers, the families of the Labbada house made repeated offers to act as shields for the soldiers in order to allow them to enter the building to search for the target of the raid, but the soldiers refused, and soon began to demolish the homes. At 4:00am most of theresidents were released and allowed to enter the home of a neighbor, but one elderly man, approximately eighty years old, was further detained until around 9:00am when he was released.

At 3:00am, with the residents still detained in the street, IOF bulldozers and “excavators” began to demolish small homes surrounding the Labbada complex, in an attempt to reach the three-story building. Once the building around the Labbada house had been completely demolished, the army began to demolish the three-story building from three sides. At this time, soldiers entered the At Tamimi building, a two-story home adjacent to the Labbada complex, and used the top floor as a sniper position. At 9:30am, five men were kidnapped from the neighboring house and forced to enter the apartment being used as a sniper nest to act as human shields for the army.

These men were held from 9:30am-11:45am. The men are named Shadi, age 23, Majdi, age 35, Tamer, age 19, Rami, age 17, Mohammad, age 21 and Walid, age 64.

The army proceeded to demolish at least three homes bordering the Labbada complex, and an additional eleven flats within the complex. While they demolished the homes, the army fired almost constantly into the building, while also firing at demonstrators with live ammunition, tear gas and concussion grenades. During this assault, the soldiers repeatedly fired explosive grenades from M-16 assault rifles into the building’s windows.

While demolishing the homes, the army crushed at least eight automobiles, and utilizing a bulldozer, dropped three of them on a neighboring house. Also during the attack, IOF soldiers entered the adjacent children’s’ school and after knocking out the windows, used the area as a firing position to shoot at demonstrators. In addition, Palestinian medical volunteers reported that around 5:00pm, a large fire was seen blazing in the
Labbada house, the result of repeated IOF grenade fire.

During the demolition, young Palestinian demonstrators gathered on and around Amman street, and were fired upon repeatedly. Rafidia hospital has confirmed that during these clashes, Muntasir Sulaiman Muhammad Ukah, 15 from Askar refugee camp, was shot in the back and killed. Rafidia has also confirmed treating an additional 12 persons for injuries, they are:

Issam Fathi Joma’a, 27 years old, with shrapnel in his right shoulder.
Ammar Nizar Saed, 16 years old, shot in the hand.
Jaber Naser Abd-Alrahman, 16 years old, shrapnel in an unknown location.
Ayman Abed Al-kareem Al-Khayat, 17 years old, shot in left leg.
Rani Mohammad Al-akhbar, 18 years old, shot in the leg.
Mahdi Atif Shrooti, 13 years old, shot in the hip.
Abed Al-latif Tahseen Agha, 9 years old, with shrapnel in the neck.
Abed Al-aziz Khalel Jebril, 18 years old, shot with a rubber bullet in the right hand.
Fathi Mohammad, 80 years old, shot in the right leg.
Ramadan Husam Al-ajori, 13 years old, shot in the right leg.
Fadi Ahmad, 18 years old, show with a rubber bullet in the head.
Ahamd Zayad Solayman, 15 years old, shot in the back.

Local news sources report an additional ten injuries but only those named were transfered to Rafidia hospital. On at least two occasions, IOF soldiers prevented Palestinian ambulances from reaching injured persons in a timely manner.

The target of the incursion is unclear, but IOF soldiers arrested Nizar Labbada, 30 years old, before leaving the scene at 6:30pm. This is not the first time the 79 year old building was raided. In 2004, IOF soldiers attacked the building on four separate occasions in search of Firaz Labbada, now 34. Firaz was arrested in 2004 and is currently imprisoned until at least 2008.
Photo Evidence From the Last Incursion into Nablus
Home Demolitions in Jabal Shamali a “Mistake”
September 6th, 2006

by ISM Nablus

On Saturday the 26th of August, Israeli military invaded the Jabal Shamali area of Nablus and destroyed 22 homes [for a report, pictures and video, see the previous report on the ISM website]. The next day, Israel’s largest newspaper Yedioth Ahronoth reported that the home demolition was “a mistake,” and that the Israeli military failed to arrest two to three Fatah activists that were the target of the operation.

At the end of the incursion, five individual houses and one three-storey block of flats were destroyed. One of the six buildings demolished was a community meeting hall, the others homes belonging to the Saedi, G’name, Sa’eah and Lubaddeh families. Eight cars were also totally wrecked, five of which were dumped onto a neighboring house, causing structural damage in the form of broken base-beams in the roof and the bending of walls.

Additional houses were also damaged during the demolition. The home adjacent to the structure damaged by the demolished cars was severely burn-damaged, and three homes west of the apartment block were 80% destroyed and are now unlivable. In total, 22 homes and apartments were completely demolished, and an additional five homes were made unlivable.

About 100 people were made homeless by the Israeli military’s actions and are now evacuated to friends’ homes in surrounding neighborhoods, or forced to rent apartments around Nablus. With the help of friends and neighbors, they have removed the remains of their homes that were not completely bullet-ridden or shredded by bulldozers and are now planning on rebuilding the homes as they were.

The families have been given ,000 collectively from the Palestinian government as aid for rebuilding their homes, and friends and neighbors collected an additional ,000 for the same purpose. This is, however, far from enough money. The cost of rebuilding the Lubaddeh block of flats alone, as estimated by engineers, will amount to about 0,000.

The issue of home demolitions has been discussed at length by the Israeli High Court of Justice in many cases, including Janimat V. IDF Military Commander 1997. In the discussion of this case, published by the Israeli Supreme Court in “Judgments of the Israeli Supreme Court: Fighting Terrorism within in Law”, the Justices argue, “home demolitions are allowed only in light of especially serious terrorist activities, such as involvement in suicide bombings aimed at civilians… The demolitions are subject to legal principals, such as the principle of proportionality. For example, the measure may only be used if it is possible to limit it to the terrorist’s home, without demolishing adjacent dwellings. (60)” In addition, the President of the Court, A. Barak states, “[Demolitions are] implemented in stages and with care in order to prevent damage to the rest of the building. If damage is caused, it will be repaired. (62)” In the case of this incursion, the homes were demolished while searching for suspects, not “in light of especially serious terrorist activities.” In addition, 22 homes were demolished in their attempt to arrest, clearly violating the “principal of proportionality.” According to President Barak, the homes’ of the residents will be repaired, though follow through on this is unlikely.

Nizar Lubbadeh, who gave himself up to be arrested in a desperate bid to stop the demolition of his and his family’s home, was released shortly after questioning. One other man, Mohammad Ayad, was however arrested after the demolition and is still in jail.

According to the Nablus Municipality, 220 buildings have been destroyed in Nablus since the beginning of the current Intifada in September 2000. This number excludes the large number of homes destroyed in Israel’s “Operation Defensive Shield” in 2002. Following this most recent incursion into Jabal Shamali, the number is now up to 242. This attack marks one of the largest houses to be destroyed. Other big demolitions include a 9-storey building in Rafidya Al-Makhfiyya 3 years ago, belonging to Jafar Maasri who was killed by lethal gas in the Old City, and the Al-Sudder family home in New Askar refugee camp about one and a half years ago.

Amer and Allam Lubbadeh, two brothers made homeless by the demolition, urge anyone who wishes to donate money to the rebuilding of their family home to contact the Palestinian Red Crescent in Nablus, by telephone at 09-2384151, or by fax at 09-2380215.

Aflicktion: The Wreck of Hope
live news
Image by ocean.flynn
Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2007. “Nanuq of the North II: Animal Rights vs Human Rights.” Speechless. Uploaded January 3, 2007.

The Bush administration took advantage of the way in which all eyes turn towards Santa’s North Pole, where big-eyed talking polar bears, reindeer and seals live in harmony, to announce that they would save these creatures from Nanook of the North. See story.
For a divergent point of view read Nunatsiak News article.
Nanook (nanuq Inuktitut for polar bear) was the name of the Eskimo hunter captured on film in the first documentary ever produced, Robert Flaherty’s (1922) Nanook of the North, — still shown in film studies survey courses. Nanook the Stone Age-20the century hunter became an international legend as a lively, humourous and skillful hunter of polar bears, seals and white fox who tried to bite into the vinyl record Flaherty had brought with him. (The real “Nanook” died of tuberculosis (Stern 2004:23) as did countless Inuit from small communities ravaged by one of the worst epidemic’s of tuberculosis on the planet.)

On August 13, 1942 in Walt Disney studios’ canonical animated film Bambi it was revealed that many animals with cute eyes could actually talk and therefore shared human values. Nanook and his kind became the arch enemy of three generations of urban North Americans and Europeans. Hunters were bad. Cute-eyed animals that could talk were good. Today many animals’ lives have been saved from these allegedly cruel hunters by the billion dollar cute-eyed-talking-animals-industry.

The White House has once again come to the rescue of these vulnerable at-risk animals. (There was an entire West Wing episode in which a gift of moose meat was rejected by all staff since it came from a big-eyed-talking-animal. See Ejesiak and Flynn-Burhoe (2005) for more on how the urban debates pitting animal rights against human rights impacted on the Inuit.) Who would ever have suspected that the Bush administration cared so much about the environment that they would urge an end to the polar bear hunt, already a rare phenomenon to many Inuit since their own quotas protected them?

When I lived in the north the danger for polar bears did not reside in the hearts of hunters. Nanuq the polar bear who could not talk was starving. He hung out around hamlets like Churchill, Baker Lake or Iqaluit, looking for garbage since this natural habitat was unpredictable as the climate changed. Some people even insisted that there was no danger from the polar bear who had wandered into town since he was ’skinny.’ That did not reassure me! I would have preferred to know that he was fat, fluffy and well-fed. Polar bears die from exhaustion trying to swim along their regular hunting routes as ice floes they used to be able to depend on melted into thin air literally. They die, not because there are not enough seals but because they need platform ice in the right seasons. That platform ice is disappearing. They die with ugly massive tumours in them developed from eating char, seals and other Arctic prey whose bodies are riddled with southern toxins that have invaded the pristine, vulnerable northern ecosystem. Nanuq is dying a slow painful death. Nanuq is drowning. Although he doesn’t sing he is a canary for us all.

Climate change and southern industrial toxins affect the fragile ecosystem of the Arctic first. The Inuit claimed in 2003,"Global warming is killing us too, say Inuit ."This is why Sheila Watt-Cloutier laid a law suit against the administration of the United States of America. Now the handful of Job-like Inuit who managed to survive the seal hunt fiasco of the 1980s and are still able hunt polar bear, will have yet another barrier put between them and the ecosystem they managed and protected for millennia. When I see Baroque art and read of the Enlightenment, I think Hudson’s Bay and the whalers in the north. It wasn’t the Inuit who caused the mighty leviathan to become endangered. Just how enlightened are we, the great grandchildren of the settlers today? Who is taking care of our Other grandparents?

Since the first wave of Inuit activists flooded the Canadian research landscape fueled by their frustrations with academic Fawlty Towers they morphed intergenerational keen observation of details, habits of memory, oral traditions and determination with astute use of artefacts and archives to produce focused and forceful research. When Sheila Watt-Cloutier representing the Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) was acknowledged with two awards in one year for work done to protect the environment, I wondered how many cheered her on.

I don’t cheer so much anymore. I am too overwhelmed, too hopeless to speak. I myself feel toxic, perhaps another pollutant from the south — my name is despair. I don’t want to dampen the enthusiasm of those activists who still have courage to continue. For myself, I feel like the last light of the whale-oil-lit kudlik is Flicktering and there is a blizzard outside.


From wikipedia entry Sheila Watt-Cloutier

In 2002, Watt-Cloutier was elected[1][4] International Chair of ICC, a position she would hold until 2006[1]. Most recently, her work has emphasized the human face of the impacts of global climate change in the Arctic. In addition to maintaining an active speaking and media outreach schedule, she has launched the world’s first international legal action on climate change. On December 7, 2005, based on the findings of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, which projects that Inuit hunting culture may not survive the loss of sea ice and other changes projected over the coming decades, she filed a petition, along with 62 Inuit Hunters and Elders from communities across Canada and Alaska, to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, alleging that unchecked emissions of greenhouse gases from the United States have violated Inuit cultural and environmental human rights as guaranteed by the 1948 American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man.[5]

2. See also David Ewing Duncan’s "Bush’s Polar-Bear Problem" Technology Review: The Authority on the Future of Technology. From MIT. Information on Emerging Technologies. March 09, 2007. Duncan claims "The administration tells scientists attending international meetings not to discuss polar bears, climate change, or sea ice."


Digitage elements:

Caspar David Friedrich’s (1824) The Sea of Ice
Tujjaat Resolution Island, abandoned, DEW line station DINA Northern Contaminated Sites Program (CSP) web site
My photo of ice floes in Charlottetown harbour, March 2000
A section of my acrylic painting entitled Nukara (2000)

Selected Bibliography

Eilperin, Juliet. (2006). ""U.S. Wants Polar Bears Listed as Threatened." Washington Post Staff Writer. Wednesday, December 27, 2006; Page A01

Fekete, Jason. 2008. "Nunavut opposes anti-polar bear hunt movement in U.S." Calgary Herald. May 29, 2008

Gertz, Emily. 2005. The Snow Must Go On. Inuit fight climate change with human-rights claim against U.S. Grist: Environmental News and Commentary. 26 Jul 2005.

The Guardian. 2003. ""Inuit to launch human rights case against the Bush Administration."

DEW line contaminated sites in Nunavut.

Stern, Pamela R. 2004. Historical Dictionary of the Inuit. Lanham, MD:Scarecrow Press.,3604,1104241,00….….

This will be updated from EndNote. If you require a specific reference please leave a comment on this page.

Creative Commons Canadian Copyright 2.5 BY-NC-SA.

live news
Image by BostonCatholic
JERUSALEM (April 15, 2013) – Cardinal Seán and a group of 29 priests of the Archdiocese of Boston have traveled on an Easter pilgrimage to the Holy Land this week, and they’re bringing the readers of blog along with them.

On the last day of their pilgrimage, the pilgrims began by walking the Via Dolorosa, the Way of the Cross, the path through the streets of Jerusalem that Jesus walked with the Cross to the Crucifixion. After celebrating Mass, they thanked those who had taken care of them on their pilgrimage and prepared for their flights home. As they waited, news of the bombings at the Boston Marathon back home reached the pilgrims and they united themselves in prayer with those who were hurt, their families, and the emergency workers who rushed to care for them.

All this week, our colleague George Martell is traveling with the pilgrimage, embedded with the Cardinal and his priests so we can bring you photos, blogs, videos, and audio reports from the Holy Land from the pilgrims at such places as the Basilica of the Annunciation, Mount Carmel, the Sea of Galilee, the Church of the Transfiguration, Qumran, the Mount of Olives, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the Upper Room, and more. This is a once in a lifetime opportunity to walk in the footsteps of Jesus with Cardinal Seán and the Archdiocese’s priests as an Easter retreat experience.

Please stay tuned to, as well as and and our Facebook Page at and Twitter account: for the latest updates from the Holy Land.

(Photo credit: George Martell/ This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.


A few nice morocco images I found:

Image by fabiogis50
cntr 24


Some cool radio station images:

Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) contact with Institut Florimont from the ITU amateur radio station 4U1ITU

Image by ITU Pictures
Dr Hamadoun I. Touré, Secretary – General, ITU speaking at the event prior to the Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) contact with Institut Florimont from the ITU amateur radio station 4U1ITU. © ITU/F.Scotti

Radio City 96.7 Tower – from Richmond Street, Liverpool

Image by ell brown
Views of the Radio City 96.7 Tower from Richmond Street in Liverpool.

Built 1969 as St John’s Beacon. It had a revolving restaurant.

Refurbished in 2000 and reopened as the Radio City 96.7 radio station.


“I’m not musically inclined.” “I’m all thumbs.” “I couldn’t sing my way out of a paper sack.” “I’m tone deaf.” All of these reasons that people give, and more of them, cannot convince me that someone couldn’t learn music if they wanted. After all, everyone remembers snippets of music they’ve heard from the radio or elsewhere. Music makes life interesting. One doesn’t have to know how to read sheet music, to be able to enjoy playing music.

To explain, music is sound divided into elements, that, when heard, pleases our spirits. These elements are melody, harmony, and rhythm. We latch onto the steady beat, and the dramatic, up and down melody.

Now, to divide the elements into what we may understand, we focus on melody. These sounds are put together in increments that follow a pattern. This pattern is based on a scale, or at least a key. The scale, or key, has a letter name, like ‘C’. When one plays a ‘C’ on an instrument, one has a reference point to play the other letters in a melody.

Should you want to learn a song you have heard, take a part of the melody you remember.
You may play the first note that you consider in the range of the song. Whatever instrument you play, you can choose any starting note. In order to reproduce the melody exactly, or very closely, use the following technique.

Does the melody go up or down in sound from the first note? When you play the next note, does it sound right or wrong, good or bad? If it sounds bad, that note is probably not in the scale or key of the song. The way to remember the wrong note is to write it down. So, write down all the right notes, and all the wrong notes you play. You’ll soon see patterns of notes you should and shouldn’t play, as you navigate up and down the melody.

Regarding rhythm, tap out the easiest part of the song you like. If it’s too hard, slow the rhythm, and attempt to tap it without errors. You’ll soon see the long and short taps work together to keep a constant and logical pace. You’re able to emphasize beats, tapping them harder or softer.

Now, attempt to play the right notes within the learned rhythm. Don’t tap out the rhythm any longer. Use the melody for the rhythm. If you’re singing, don’t worry so much about wrong notes, as about correct rhythm. Where you emphasized the rhythm alone, attempt to do the same with the notes. Sing or play them louder or softer, to enhance the beat. Scoop the notes dramatically for effect; lengthen or shorten the notes; play whole phrases gradually louder or softer. Feel the music take over your mind and spirit.

In the end, playing music gives us a beautiful feeling. Like any art, music involves working with the constructs of the physical, to see past physics, and contact the spiritual. Music is for everyone with a spirit.

by Scott LeMot


Cash Cab’s Ben Bailey
Event on 2017-06-10 19:00:00

at Hyenas Dallas
5321 East Mockingbird
Dallas, United States


Breakthrough Music Business Summit Dallas
Event on 2017-06-17 18:30:00
This is just a pre-registration ticket. When the 20 tickets become available pre-registers will be notified 72 hours before the general public. The Breakthrough Music Summit is for any artist that wants to have ultimate breakthrough in their career.This career & life changing event with former A&R Director, music industry success coach, and music business strategist will not only be a roadmap to further your career but in one night you will be able to break through the limiting beliefs and habits that have caused roadblocks in you achieving ultimate success in the music industry that you desire and deserve.This event is only available to the 20 artists that want to have breakthrough in their career. This won't be another boring conference or lecture. This is going to be a hands on meeting with the premier music business success and strategist coach Matthew Rix! Matthew Rix inteoduction video on the Breakthrough Summit Rix has spent 20 years in the music industry in various job titles including being a senior A&R director, an A&R consultant, and regional promotions coordinator and for the past few years Matthew is the "go to" guy for artists. He's been called on to assist artist in the studio that are dealing with creative blocks (songwriting, artistic direction), negotiated record deals and his music business audio series "Mattrix Minute" had over 8.4 million sales and streams in 2014 alone from 38 different nations. Matthew's purpose with this event is taking your career from good to outstanding.This is not* Artist showcase* A&R audition*A mixerThis is for artists that want to find out how to take their career to the next level, whichever area that might be and receive the tools to achieve it.Each attendee will receive the following:*Entry into The Breakthrough Music Summit*Free copy of the soon to be released "7 Tips for unprecedented success" by Matthew Rix*One song submission to be featured on a special Mattrix Mixtape event compilation (And you get paid for every sale and stream on this compilation)*A private coach that will do follow up with you and help you with your compilation success.If you're ready for breakthrough then this summit is for you!

at TBA
2617 Commerce
Dallas, United States


by izqrdo

Peoples life is shrinking around office desks and monotony is seeping slowly in the lives. Holidays are must for any individual to remain sane in the fast lane life. But todays successful people also want to remain free of any bondage of relationships. That is why their life is lonely. But they even enjoy the status and freedom of being a singleton. And it applies to their way of holidaying too. Tourists for singles holidays are increasing day by day. And even UK single travellers are no anomaly.

The pattern of enjoying vacations is changing. Gone are the days when vacations used to be the medium to refresh and strengthen the relationships or friendship by spending time together. But now single traveller holidays are the new way to widen the social circle. Single traveller is the one who ventures out to explore the world on his or her own. They go on holidays for single and travel freely as a bird. People now pack backpacks and forget the world to discover a new world of single people on singles holidays. They share their unique experiences with each other.

Everybody has his or her own reason to travel. Some people go on tour for singles to meet new people and learn from their experiences. They want break from the boredom of some trying relationship or just want to see new and eager faces of other singletons that are on their own. The chance to meet interesting people increases on singles holidays abroad.

Holidays for solo are becoming preferred with both the single travellers and the companies. There are companies who specialise only in arranging tour for singles. Singletons want to explore the world uninterrupted and that is what companies try to provide for them on single holidays abroad. The exotic locations of East Asia, Caribbean islands are quite popular among UK single travellers. Some other popular holiday destinations are Greece, Las Vegas, Australia, Thailand and so on for singles holidays abroad.

Even the mention of going to altogether different country on single traveller holidays sends thrill and rush to the nerves. And todays people living in the fast lane always look for such adventure and excitement in their lives. The whole industry of holidays for solo is not only expanding it is changing or should we say developing every other year. It adapts itself according to the demands of the market. And the market is becoming young and more experimental. Single holiday abroad has not remained untouched. Single travellers ask for new and fresh to see and explore every time.

So holidays for single are an obligation for an individual to rejuvenate the senses and to get a brake the monotonous hum-drum of lives.

Smriti has been writing articles online for over 2 years now. She is an expert writer who writes about Singles Holidays, Singles Holiday & Single Holidays.

Related Live Radio Articles


Pour Yourself into History with the Dallas Historical Society
Event on 2017-08-15 18:00:00
Join the Dallas Historical Society and co-host Dallas Hotel Magazine for happy hour to learn more about the unique past of one of Dallas' most iconic places, Granda Theater. Bring friends to sip, socialize, share memories, and "drink in" history knowledge in a fun, relaxed and enjoyable setting!  Talk will begin at 6:30. Free to attend; Attendees responsible for their food and drink.

at Granada Theater
3524 Greenville Avenue
Dallas, United States


by EgoAnt

Basic designs

Crystal radio

Main article: Crystal radio receiver

A crystal set receiver consisting of a antenna, a variable inductor, a cat’s whisker, and a capacitor.


Simple, easy to make. This is the classic design for a clandestine receiver in a POW camp.


Insensitive, it needs a very strong RF signal to operate.

Poor selectivity, it often only has only one tuned circuit.

Direct amplification

Main article: directly amplifying receiver

The directly amplifying receiver contains the input radio frequency filter, the radio frequency amplifier (amplifying radio signal of the tuned station), the detector and the sound frequency amplifier. This design is simple and reliable, but much less sensitive than the superheterodyne (described below).


Main article: reflectional receiver

The reflectional receiver contains the single amplifier that amplifies first radio, and then (after detection) sound frequency. It is simpler, smaller and consumes less power, but it is also comparatively unstable.


Main article: Regenerative circuit

The Regenerative circuit has the advantage of being potentially very sensitive, it uses positive feedback to increase the gain of the stage. Many valved sets were made which used a single stage. However if misused it has the great potential to cause radio interference, if the set is adjusted wrongly (too much feedback used) then the detector stage will oscillate so causing the interference.

Regenerative Receiver Schematic

Tuned radio frequency

Main article: Tuned radio frequency receiver

the RF interference that the local oscillator can generate can be controlled with the use of a buffer stage between the LO and the Detector, and a buffer or RF amp stage between the LO and the antenna.

Direct conversion

Main article: Direct-conversion receiver

In the Direct conversion receiver the signals from the aerial pass through a band pass filter, and an amplifier before reaching a non-linear mixer where they are mixed with a signal from a local oscillator which is tuned to the carrier wave frequency of an AM or SSB transmitter. The output of this mixer is then passed through a low pass filter before an audio amplifier. This is then the output of the radio.

For CW morse the local oscillator is tuned to a frequency slightly different from that of the transmitter to make the received signal audible.


Simpler than a superhet

Better tuning than a simple crystal set


Less selective than a superhet with regard to strong in-band signals

A wider bandwidth than a good SSB communications radio, this is because no sideband filtering exists in this circuit.


Main article: Superheterodyne receiver

Here are two superheterodyne designs for AM and FM respectively. The FM design is a cheap design intended for a broadcast band household receiver.

A schematic of a superhet AM receiver. Note that the radio has a AGC loop.

For single conversion superheterodyne AM receivers designed for mediumwave and longwave the IF is commonly 455 kHz.

A schematic of a simple cheap superhet FM receiver. Note that the radio lacks a AGC loop, and that the IF amplifier has a very high gain and is driven into clipping.

For many single conversion superheterodyne receivers designed for band II FM (88 – 108 MHz) the IF is commonly 10.7 MHz. For TV sets the IF tends to be at 33 to 40 MHz.

FM vs. AM

To make a good AM receiver an automatic gain control loop is essential; this requires good design. To make a good FM receiver a large number of RF amps which are driven into limiting are required to create a receiver which can take advantage of the capture effect, one of the biggest advantages of FM. With valved (tube) systems it is more expensive to make active stages than it is to make the same number of stages with solid state parts, so for a valved superhet it is simpler to make an AM receiver with the automatic gain control loop while for a solid state receiver it is simpler to make an FM unit. Hence even while the idea of FM was known before World War II its use was rare because of the cost of valves – in the UK the government had a valve holder tax which encouraged radio receiver designers to use as few active stages as possible, – but when solid state parts became available FM started to gain favour.

Automatic gain control

Main article: Automatic gain control

Further reading

Radiocommunication handbook (RSGB), ISBN 0-900612-58-4


^ Cheney, M., Uth, R., & Glenn, J. (1999). Tesla, master of lightning. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. Page 71.

Categories: Radio electronicsHidden categories: Articles lacking sources from February 2008 | All articles lacking sources | Wikipedia articles needing context from October 2009

I am China Manufacturers writer, reports some information about plastic tube extrusion , wheeled carts.

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